WOP: National Water and Sewerage Corporation & Mulonga Water and Sewerage Company

WOP: National Water and Sewerage Corporation & Mulonga Water and Sewerage Company

SecretariatSecretariat   March 26, 2018  

Based on the evidence provided by an in-depth analysis of utilities having set up and sustained successful LICSUs (Low-Income Customer Support Units), WaterAid approached GWOPA in 2016 to propose an opportunity for those utilities willing to emulate the good practices identified. The objective of the collaboration between WaterAid and GWOPA was to help one mentee utility in Africa to establish a LICSU with the help of an experienced utility (mentor) and to review its current pro-poor practices in the view of providing recommendations for improving them through the newly established LICSU. There was a Call for Mentees and two Zambian utilities were selected, Nkana Water and Sewerage Company being one and Mulonga Water Company (Zambia) being the other.

This was a pilot initiative, as the partners, GWOPA and WaterAid hope that further support through peer-to-peer between utilities will be explored on the back of this process. It is also hoped that this will have the effect of not only benefiting the relevant state or cities, where the utilities operate but also open up a new line of peer support through WOPs.

As a mentor, NWSC-Uganda was mandated to implement some targeted capacity building activities –on the basis of the need assessment done during the diagnosis-aiming at implementing short-term thematic action plans during the one-year WOP and help the mentee to establish a LICSU.

The WOP has been designed for a total duration of one year, with a diagnosis visit of 5 days, a benchmarking visit of the same duration, and 3 training and monitoring subsequent visit. The last visit should be a validation of the Medium Term Plan and an assessment of the achievements of the project.

The following challenges were identified during the focus group discussions of the diagnosis mission, as affecting the ability of MWSC to effectively serve its customers. The challenges are grouped into Technical, Financial, Commercial and Human resources categories.

The Technical challenges include:

  1. Dilapidated and inadequate funds for the upgrading of water and sewerage infrastructure
  2. Low treatment efficiency of water treatment facilities
  3. Inadequate internal capacity to extend services to new development areas
  4. Lack of production and zonal meters
  5. High NRW and Non-existant hydraulic zone
  6. Lack of  GIS/GPS
  7. Frequent power interruptions
  8. Pollution of raw water sources resulting in high chemical costs.

The Financial challenges include:

  1. High Debtors stocks
  2. High energy and chemical costs
  3. Delayed payments resulting in loss of goodwill with suppliers
  4. Insufficient funds for CAPEX

The Human Resources challenges include:

  1. Poor attitude and mindset of staff and organization culture
  2. Low staff productivity as a result of demotivated workforce
  3. Inadequate incentives
  4. Lack of staff development
  5. Insufficient transport
  6. Lack of leadership in some departments
  7. High staff turnover

The Commercial challenges include:

  1. Poor payment culture by customers
  2. Poor quality of meter readings
  3. Low metering ratio
  4. Poor database
  5. Poor customer care

Other challenges:

  1. Vandalism of water & sewerage infrastructure
  2. Failure to prosecute cases [illegal connections/reconnections]
  3. Erection of illegal structures on water and sewerage infrastructure
  4. Uncoordinated development by Local Authorities
  5. Limited independence of raw supply sources [i.e. Mine WTPs] especially in Chingola and Mufulira towns
  6. Low water supply hours per day
  7. Rising demand for water and sanitation services
  8. Political interference
  9. Poor management and execution of projects
  10. Poor image of MWSC by the public

The Short-Term Action Plan was designed to address these challenges.


wop africa



October 01, 2017 - October 01, 2018
Was the code of conduct followed?
Yes link
Did the operators sign a formal partnership agreement?
WOPs facilitator



Other supporting organizations
WaterAid (Technical support, Funding Partner)
GWOPA (Broker, Facilitator, Technical Support)
Total cost of WOP ($)


  • Billing and revenue collection
  • Expanding services to low income households
  • Non Revenue Water (NRW) management
  • Waste water collection and treatment
  • Water quality management
  • Other

Please specify other theme(s)
Human Resource Management
Water Supply

The WOP was funded by WaterAid, on the basis of the GWOPA’s Charter and Code-of-Conduct, including the not-for-profit principle. NWSC – Uganda was identified as a suitable mentor and mandated to help Nkana Water and Sewerage Company (NWSC-Zambia) to:
(1) Undertake an assessment of the present situation, especially review of the current pro-poor services within NWSC-Zambia,
(2) Provide a clear road-map for the improvement of Low-Income Customer Services, including when relevant, the establishment of a Low-Income Customer Support Unit (LICSU) within the mentee utility, with some steps actually taken by the utility.
(3) Provide a Short Term Action Plan (One [1] year) – developed and implemented – for the improvement of the pro-poor services through the newly established LICSU. This could include the design of a pilot project in a settlement identified during the WOP implementation phase; and
(4) Provide a Medium Term Action Plan (two [2] to thee [3] years) for the improvement of the pro-poor services through the LICSU including investment needs.


What types of activities were carried out to help develop operator capacity?
  • Classroom training
  • Joint planning or work
  • Online training
  • On the job training
  • Site visits
  • Other


Describe the overall results
(1) A Short Term Action Plan has been designed and some actions have already been implemented (by March 2018.
(2) New organogram for Pro-poor Unit adopted and in place, with recruitment costs to be internally funded.
(3) 6 plumbers have been employed and are in place – Feb 2018, out of the 21 positions missing and recommended.
(4) Completion of the designed for the extension of 2.5km of water network to un-serviced areas which will serve individual connections, communal standpipes and kiosks in Kasompe and Kapisha.
(5) Sensitization campaign commenced (Poor perception of MWSC services among the customers).
(6) Team to reduce and investigate illegal/suspected accounts and prescribe ToRs with the guidance from the Mentor (NWSC-U) being partially established with the recruitment of inspectors.
(7) Creation of DMAs in all three divisions of MW: Divisional Task teams formed and DMAs identified but yet to be metered.
(8) CB for meter readers and billing officers: SOPs training on metering program commenced in Jan 2018.

*This WOP is still on-going and will be updated at a later stage*

Which factors had a positive influence on the success of your WOP?
Financing for WOPs


  • File Description
    File Size
    File Type
  • 1. EXPRESSION OF INTEREST_final_revised
    674 KB
  • 2. FoC_Mulonga_signed_Habitat_NWSC_WaterAid
    459 KB
  • 3. Diagnostic and Short Term Action Plan for Mulonga WSC_Final07032018
    7 MB
    888 KB
  • 3.2 ANNEX VII b NWSC PP Service Perspectives
    593 KB
  • 3.3 ANNEX VII c NWSC pro poor service operations
    1 MB
  • 3.4 ANNEX VIII Pictorial
    1 MB
  • 3.5 Annex VII b NWSC-Uganda presentation to NWSC Zambia_04102017
    1 MB
  • 4. Zambia WOP_Benchmarking Visit_15-20.Jan.2018_Final Report
    1 MB
  • 4.1 ANNEX # 1 Zambia WOP _Programme _Nkana Mulonga _final_15012018
    281 KB
  • 4.2 ANNEX # 2 HR Presentation NkanaMulonga
    486 KB
  • 4.3 ANNEX #3 Overview BSS
    187 KB
  • 4.4 ANNEX # 4 Intel Billing presentation_Nkana Mulonga Water
    250 KB
  • 4.5 ANNEX # 5 NWSC pro poor service operations
    1 MB
  • 4.6 ANNEX # 6 On spot Billing Function presentation
    647 KB
  • 4.7 ANNEX # 7 Kampala Water Production Organogram Structure
    153 KB
  • 4.8 ANNEX 8 KW NRW Reduction Initiativies
    3 MB
  • 4.9 ANNEX # 9 NWSC Overview_Presentation to WOP Nkana Mulonga _Jan 2018
    4 MB